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数控机床切削液的运用有哪些作用?

  • 发表时间:2020-08-18 09:46:25
  • 来源:未知
  • 人气:
  切削液是专门为数控机床研制的一种金属加工液。以硫化猪油、硫化脂肪酸酯、氯化石蜡、环氧大豆油为主要极压润滑剂,配以不同比例的防锈剂、表面活性剂、抗氧剂等组成。
 
  数控机床切削液的作用是什么?
 
  1切削冷却效果
 
  切削液能吸收和带走切削区的大量热量,降低刀具和工件的温度,从而延长刀具的使用寿命,减少因热变形而引起的工件尺寸误差,为提高生产效率创造了重要条件。
 
  2切削润滑
 
  切削液可以穿透工件和刀具之间,在切屑和刀具之间的小间隙内形成一层薄的吸附膜。因此,可以减少刀具与切屑、刀具与工件之间的摩擦,减少刀具磨损,从而使切屑去除平滑,提高工件表面质量。对于精加工,润滑更为重要。
 
  三。切割清洗功能
 
  清洗后产生的小切屑容易吸附在工件和刀具上,特别是在加工内孔时。如果注入足够的切削液,切屑可以很快地被冲走,切割也可以顺利进行。在薄壁套筒车削加工过程中,选用厚极压乳状液作为切削液,在加工中起着非常重要的作用。
 
  4防锈效果
 
  在金属切削过程中,工件与切削液成分分解或氧化产生的污泥等腐蚀介质接触会产生腐蚀,与切削液接触的机床零件表面也会受到腐蚀。另外,当工件在加工后或工序间的转移过程中临时存放时,要求切削液具有一定的防锈能力,防止环境介质和残余切削液等腐蚀性物质对金属的腐蚀。尤其是在南方潮湿多雨的季节,工序间的防锈措施更应引起重视。
 
  5其他功能
 
  除上述四项功能外,所用切削液应具有良好的稳定性,在储存和使用过程中不应有沉淀或分层、油、皂和老化现象。它对细菌和霉菌有一定的抵抗力,不易滋生霉菌和生物降解,造成异味和变质。对喷漆部位无损伤,对人体无伤害,无刺激性气味。使用过程中无烟、无雾或少烟。该工艺回收方便,污染小,排放废液易处理,经处理后可达到国家工业废水排放标准。
 
  Cutting fluid is a kind of metal processing fluid specially developed for CNC machine tools.It is composed of sulfurized lard,sulfurized fatty acid ester,chlorinated paraffin,epoxy soybean oil as the main extreme pressure lubricants,compounded with different proportions of antirust agent,surfactant,antioxidant,etc.
 
  What are the functions of cutting fluid used in CNC machine tools?
 
  1.Cooling effect in cutting
 
  The cutting fluid can absorb and take away a large amount of heat in the cutting area,reduce the temperature of the tool and the workpiece,so as to prolong the service life of the cutting tool,reduce the size error of the workpiece due to thermal deformation,and create an important condition for improving the production efficiency.
 
  2.Lubrication in cutting
 
  The cutting fluid can penetrate between the workpiece and the cutter,and form a thin adsorption film in the small gap between the chip and the tool.Therefore,the friction between the tool and the chip,between the tool and the workpiece can be reduced,and the tool wear can be reduced,so that the chip removal is smooth and the surface quality of the workpiece is improved.For finish machining,lubrication is more important.
 
  3.Cleaning function in cutting
 
  The small chips produced by cleaning are easy to adsorb on the workpiece and tool,especially when machining the inner hole.If enough cutting fluid is poured,the chip can be washed away quickly and the cutting can be carried out smoothly.In the process of turning thin-walled sleeve,a thick EP emulsion is selected as the cutting fluid,which also plays a very important role in machining.
 
  4.Antirust effect
 
  In the process of metal cutting,the workpiece will be corroded by contacting with the corrosive medium such as sludge produced by the decomposition or oxidation of the components of the cutting fluid,and the surface of the machine tool parts in contact with the cutting fluid will also be corroded.In addition,when the workpiece is temporarily stored after processing or during the transfer process between processes,the cutting fluid is required to have a certain anti rust ability to prevent the corrosion of the metal by the corrosive substances such as the environmental medium and the residual cutting fluid.Especially in the humid and rainy season in southern China,more attention should be paid to the rust prevention measures between working procedures.
 
  5.Other functions
 
  In addition to the above four functions,the cutting fluid used should have good stability,and there should be no precipitation or stratification,oil,soap and aging phenomena during storage and use.It has a certain resistance to bacteria and mold,and is not easy to grow mold and biodegradation,resulting in odor and deterioration.No damage to painted parts,no harm to human body,no irritating smell.There is no smoke,fog or little smoke during use.It is easy to recover,low pollution,easy to treat the discharged waste liquid,which can meet the national industrial wastewater discharge standard after treatment.
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